A person with a work life of, say, forty years will spend five years working and thirty-five managing. That implies an exceedingly tall, narrow hierarchy. Fifteen percent of the staff is doing work, with eighty-five percent managing. As little as ten percent of the cost could be spent on the workers, with ninety percent going to reward the managers. Even Marx didn’t foresee such top-heaviness of capitalistic structures. (..) But from the corporate perspective, late promotion is a sign of health.

(PeopleWare - Productive Teams and People)